“Who Securitizes? Climate Change Discourse in the United Nations”
Invited to Revise and Resubmit at International Studies Quarterly
When and why do states reframe issues as security problems? Which states advocate for these shifts? While securitization theory predicts that states that are existentially threatened by a problem are most likely to attempt to securitize it, I argue that accounting for the dynamics of institutional agendas can better explain this phenomenon. States that stand to gain agenda control as a result of securitization are likely to use the language of existential threat in their speech, while those that are materially interested in the issue are less likely to do so. I test this theory in the case of the climate change in the UN, leveraging data on speeches in the General Assembly. I provide the first quantitative test of the securitization of climate politics, finding that P5 states securitize to expand their agenda control, while Small Island Developing States do not securitize, contra previous expectations. I further find that the overall climate discourse cannot be characterized as securitized. These findings imply that the Security Council is unlikely to be significantly involved in climate change policy, and also demonstrate the importance of rhetoric for political outcomes and for the distribution of state power within international organizations.
“The Political Consequences of Drafting Strategies in International Organizations” (with Robert Shaffer)
How and why do delegates adopt distinct drafting strategies in international organizations (IOs)? Do delegates in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) address issues on an ad hoc basis or establish a precise and durable body of law? How do the adoption of different drafting strategies affect political outcomes, such as resolution sponsorship and voting patterns? To address these questions, we examine two drafting strategies — citation and recycling — and consider the tradeoffs that state representatives make in employing such tools. We contend that these tradeoffs explain variation in policy outputs across different institutional and topical contexts. We then describe a machine learning approach designed to measure citation and recycling, which we apply to a novel dataset of all UN resolutions passed from 1946-2018. We find that distinct bodies of law and legal norms have developed in the UNGA and UNSC, and that these practices are related to resolution sponsorship and voting outcomes. We further find that resolutions on more controversial topics — particularly security matters — exhibit higher citation rates. Our research sheds light on both the agenda-setting process in the United Nations and the development of formal norms and rules in international organizations.
Voting Against Cooperation: Congressional Opposition to the League of Nations (with Julia Gray)
What determines Congressional support for international cooperation, and how do partisan positions evolve? The Senate record on WWI-era proposals for international organizations provides a particularly interesting case. Public support for the League of Nations was extremely high, and the proposal initially bore the fingerprint of both parties as well as considerable US influence in its design. Despite initial bipartisan support, over a series of votes, the Senate voted these proposals down, and position-switching from both parties was common. We use original data capturing state-level interests — including civil society activities from the League to Enforce Peace, a central advocacy group — to test hypotheses on whether senators’ changing positions reflected constituent pressure, compared with hypotheses about party unity or increasing Congressional power. Better understanding the historical relationship between ideology, constituency preferences, and support for international cooperation could shed light on contemporary challenges to the international order.
National Security and Climate Change Attitudes (with Michael Weisberg)
Previous studies have tested different means of communicating information on climate change to shift attitudes, including framing the issue in moral or economic terms, as well as credibility effects of scientific sources. These strategies have generally been ineffective at moving attitudes on climate change, and in some instances have even resulted in decreasing support.
Noting the key demographic groups to target with climate communication, this project proposes a novel test of framing and source effects. We hypothesize (1) that discussing climate change as a national security issue is likely to increase public support for climate change policies through framing effects; (2) that information on climate change delivered by national security establishment leaders is likely to increase public support for climate change policies through source effects; and (3) that these effects are likely to be most pronounced among conservative and Republican demographics.
Think Globally, Act Locally: The Determinants of Local Policymakers’ Support for Climate Policy (with Joshua A. Schwartz)
Given that federal efforts to significantly combat climate change have largely stalled or been reversed in recent years, and international climate initiatives are increasingly open to participation by non-state and sub-state actors, local environmental policies and international initiatives aimed at local governments have taken on increased importance. What drives local policymakers to participate in such initiatives, and how can these initiatives be designed to maximize participation and equity? Understanding the unique decision-making processes that local policymakers face in deciding to support or oppose different types of climate policies is crucial for the future of addressing climate change, and, in particular, has critical implications for what policies climate change activists should champion at the local level. Although many academic and policy studies have analyzed the American and global public’s views on climate change policy, there has been little focus on the views of local policymakers. In order to address this important gap in knowledge, we conduct a conjoint survey on a unique sample of local policymakers in order to evaluate why they decide to support or oppose different types of climate policies.